Changes in the Organization and Institutions of AKST and Consequences for Development and Sustainability Goals

Coordinating Lead Authors:
Helena Kahiluoto (Finland), Tanja Schuler (Germany)

Lead Authors:
Rebecca Burt (USA), Joanna Chataway (UK), Janet Cotter (UK), Guy Debailleul (Canada), John Marsh (UK), Miloslava Navrátilová (Czech Republic)

Contributing Authors:
Henrik Bruun (Finland), Richard Langlais (Canada), Paresh Shah (UK), Gerard Porter (UK), Joyce Tait (UK)

Review Editors:
Dariusz Szwed (Poland)

Key messages

4.1 Lessons Learned— A Synthesis 118
4.2 Historical Trends in the Organization of Scientific Knowledge Generation 120
4.3 General Trends of Paradigms in Societal Context 122
  4.3.1 Paradigms in NAE AKST during the first half of the period 122
  4.3.2 Impacts of paradigms in NAE AKST on low-income countries 123
  4.3.3 Paradigms in NAE AKST in recent decades 124
4.4 Changes in the Integration of Perspectives within AKST 126
  4.4.1 Evolution 126
  4.4.2 Alternatives in integration 128
  4.4.3 Barriers faced by integration 129
  4.4.4 Risks associated with integration 130
4.5 Development of Structures, Funding and Agenda of AKST 130
  4.5.1 Establishment of structures 130
  4.5.2 Drivers of change 132
  4.5.3 Development of funding and agenda in NAE in the global context 133 Development in NAE 133 NAE in the global context 136 International AKST 136
  4.5.4 Changes in structures and management 137
  4.5.5 Influence of beneficiaries 138
  4.5.6 Consequences of the changes in structures and funding 139
4.6 Development of Public Control of Agrifood Systems 141
  4.6.1 Development of risk regulation 142
  4.6.2 Intellectual property rights 143
  4.6.3 Changes in policy goals 144