Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology: Investment and Economic Returns

Coordinating Lead Authors Rates of return to agricultural R&D investments in sub-
Nienke Beintema (The Netherlands), Ahmet Ali Koc (Turkey)     Saharan Africa 517
    8.2.5 Environmental impacts of AKST investments 517
Lead Authors  Agriculture 518
Ponniah Anandajayasekeram (Australia), Aida Isinika (Tanzania), Livestock 518
Frances Kimmins (UK), Workneh Negatu (Ethiopia), Diane Osgood  Forestry 520
(Switzerland/USA), Carl Pray (USA), Marta Rivera-Ferre (Spain), V. Aquaculture 520
Santhakumar (India), Hermann Waibel (Germany)  Traditional and local knowledge 520
    8.2.6 Health impacts of agricultural R&D investments 520
Contributing Authors   8.2.7 Spillover effects 522
Jock Anderson (Australia), Steven Dehmer (USA), Veronica Gottret   8.2.8 Impacts of public sector agricultural R&D investments on
(Bolivia), Paul Heisey (USA), Philip Pardey (Australia)     poverty 524
    8.3 Governance of AKST Investments: Towards a Conceptual
Review Editors     Framework 527
Harriet Friedman (USA) and Osamu Ito (Japan)   8.3.1 Demand for improved governance 527
    8.3.2 Defining and judging governance in relation to the AKST
      investments 527
    8.3.3 Analyzing the experience of governing AKST investments 529
Key Messages  Public funding/public sector research 529
8.1 Spending and Funding Trends in AKST 497 International donors 531
8.1.1 Trends in agricultural R&D spending 497  Competitive funding 531  Public sector spending 497  Commodity boards and growers'associations 532 Private sector spending 500  Private research 532 Intensity of research 502   8.3.4 AKST governance and changes in the larger institutional International agricultural R&D 504     environment 533
8.1.2 Determinants of public and private R&D investments 505   8.3.5 The future roles of governance and institutional structure 534  Determinants of public research 505   8.4 Investment Options 535 Determinants of private research 506   8.4.1 Criteria and methods for guiding AKST investments 535
8.1.3 Investments in other AKST components 507   8.4.2 Investment options 536
8.1.4 Funding agricultural R&D in the developing world 507   Options for societies aiming to give major support to
8.2 Impacts of AKST Investments 509     environmental sustainability 538
8.2.1 Conceptual framework 509  Options for societies aiming to give major support to
8.2.2 Economic impact assessment 509     improving nutrition and human health 540
8.2.3 Methodological limitations of impact measurements 510  Options for societies aiming to give major support to the
8.2.4 Empirical evidence 511     hunger and poverty reduction 540  Rate of returns to national AKST investments 511  Options for societies aiming to give major support to Rates of return to crop genetic improvement     economically sustainable development 541
  investments 511  A portfolio of AKST investments to meet multiple Economic impacts of research and extension     goals 541
  investments 511   8.4.3 Future AKST investment levels and priorities 542 Agricultural research and education investments and  Levels of AKST investments 542
  agricultural growth 514 Allocation of AKST resources 542 Rates of return to CGIAR investments 516