520 | IAASTD Global Report

55% of soil erosion and sediment, 37% of pesticide use, 50% of antibiotic use and a third of the loads of nitrogen and phosphorus into freshwater resources (Steinfeld et al., 2006). Data are not available to estimate these impacts from an economic perspective. "Emergy" evaluations have recently been used to evaluate the costs of grazing cattle in Argentina's Pampas (Rótolo et al., 2007); to compare soy production systems in Brazil (Ortega et al., 2003); and to compare organic and conventional production systems (Castellinietal.,2006).
         The rapid spread of large-scale industrial livestock pro­duction focused on a narrow range of breeds is the biggest threat to the world's farm animal diversity (FAO, 2007). Traditional livestock losses worldwide range from one breed per week (Thrupp, 1998) to one per month (FAO, 2007). Many traditional breeds have disappeared as farmers focus on new breeds of cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens. In the year 2000, over 6,300 breeds of domesticated livestock were identified; of these, over 1,300 are now extinct or consid­ered to be in danger of extinction. Many others have not been formally identified and may disappear before they are recorded or widely known. When breeds without recorded population data are included, the number at risk may be as high as 2,255. Europe records the highest percentage of extinct breeds or breeds at risk (55% for mammalian and 69% for avian breeds). Approximately 80% of the value of livestock in low-input developing-country systems can be attributed to non-market roles, while only 20% is attribut­able to direct production outputs (FAO, 2007). By contrast, over 90% of the value of livestock in high-input industrial-ized-country production systems is attributable to the latter. How to measure or evaluate the importance of considering nonmarket values of livestock when planning AKST invest­ment is lacking. Obtaining such data frequently requires the modification of economic techniques for use in conjunction with participatory and rapid rural appraisal methods (FAO, 2007). Forestry
There are different forestry systems ranging from systems of monoculture of trees (aiming to obtain products such as cellulose, wood or other products) to systems that cultivate different tree species with other agricultural products, in­cluding livestock. Agroforestry systems (AFS) provide a mix of market and nonmarket goods and services with a high level of output per purchased investments and minimal en­vironmental impacts (Diemont et al., 2006). An agricultural system that includes agroforestry is more profitable than a conventional system (Neupane and Thapa, 2004); agrofor­estry has great potential to minimize the rate of soil degra­dation, increase crop yields and food production, and raise farm income in a sustainable manner. Aquaculture
Intensification of aquaculture has resulted in higher impacts into the environment. A deeply analyzed case is that of shrimp farming. In a simple cost-benefit analysis, industrial shrimp farming is usually found to be profitable; however, cost-benefit analyses that include environmental costs, can contradict these findings. For example, a study performed in India concluded that shrimp culture caused more economic


harm than good. The economic damage (loss of mangroves, salinization and increasing unemployment) outweighed the benefits by 4 to 1 or 1.5 to 1, depending on the areas con­sidered (Primavera, 1997). In Thailand, the total economic value of an intact mangrove exceeds that of shrimp farming by 70% (Castellini et al., 2006). The estimated internal ben­efits of developing shrimp farms are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5 to 1 (Gunawardena and Rowan, 2005). When the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1 to 6 and 1 to 11.
         In Malawi, the ecological footprint approach applied to integrated aquaculture showed that when waste from each farming enterprise is recycled into other enterprises, the economic and ecological efficiencies of all are increased (Brummet, 1999). Traditional and local knowledge
Traditional knowledge and local farming systems associated are often either ignored or sidelined by new technologies and profit-oriented interventions (Upreti and Upreti, 2002). Though there is no economic valuation estimated in mon­etary terms, it is well recognized that there is tremendous value in traditional knowledge for maintaining and improv­ing farming systems, particularly with regard to agrobiodi-versity management and utilization.
        In recent years researchers have started to address this significant gap. For example, a new conceptual framework was developed to assess the value of pastoralism that goes beyond conventional economic criteria (Hesse and McGre­gor, 2006). The objective is to provide fresh insights to its contribution to poverty reduction, sustainable environmen­tal management and the economically sustainable devel­opment of dryland areas of East Africa in the context of increasing climate uncertainty. One can associate environ­mental impacts of pastoralist traditional knowledge in terms of sustainable land use and risk management in disequilib­rium environments, biodiversity conservation and improved agricultural returns, but these too are rarely captured in na­tional statistics or recognized by policy makers.

8.2.6 Health impacts of agricultural R&D investments
The interactions between agriculture and human health are well recognized. Agricultural technologies through their ef­fects on productivity, income, and food quality and security can improve the health status of producers and consumers (Table 8-15); healthier people will generally be more pro­ductive than people who suffer from sickness or who are undernourished. On the other hand, agricultural technolo­gies can have negative effects on the health status of farm­ers, farm laborers, farm household members and consumers (Table 8-16).
          Pesticides are an example of positive (increases in pro­ductivity), and negative (environment and human health) effects (see also 8.2.5). There are at least 1 million cases of pesticide poisoning annually, with women and children in developing countries disproportionably affected (WHO, 1990; UNEP, 2004b). The total number of unintentional fatal poisonings from all sources, including agricultural chemicals, is 350,000 per year (WHO, 2006). These global