Changes in Agriculture and Food Production in NAE Since 1945

Coordinating Lead Authors:
Mary Hendrickson (USA), Mara Miele (Italy)

Lead Authors:
Rebecca Burt (USA), Joanna Chataway (UK), Janet Cotter (UK), Béatrice Darcy-Vrillon (France), Guy Debailleul (Canada), Andrea Grundy (UK), Kenneth Hinga (USA), Brian Johnson (UK), Helena Kahiluoto (Finland), Peter Lutman (UK), Uford Madden (USA), Milo- slava Navrátilová (Czech Republic)

Contributing Authors:
Dave Bjorneberg (USA), Randy L. Davis (USA), William Heffernan (US), Susanne Johansson (Sweden), Veli-Matti Loiske (Sweden), Luciano Mateos (Spain), Selyf Morgan (UK), Jyrki Niemi (Finland), Fred Saunders (Australia), Paresh Shah (UK), Gerard Porter (UK), Elisabeth Ransom (USA), Peter Reich (USA), Leonid Sharashkin (Russia), Timo Sipiläinen (Finland), Joyce Tait (UK), K.J. Thomson (UK), Francesco Vanni (Italy), Bill Vorley (UK), Markku Yli-Halla (Finland)

Review Editors:
Barbara Dinham (UK), Maria Fonte (Italy)

Key Messages

2.1 Agriculture and Food System Specialization in NAE 22
  2.1.1 Changes in farming and rural population in North America 26
  2.1.2 Changes in European farming and rural populations 27
2.2 Farm Policies and the Development of NAE Agriculture 30
  2.2.1 US farm policy: A legacy of the Great Depression 30
  2.2.2 Canada: A bipolar farm policy 31
  2.2.3 Common Agricultural Policy and the building of a single market 31
  2.2.4 Agricultural policies in CEE countries 33
2.3 Changes in Market Structure 34
2.4 Changes in NAE Cropping Systems since 1945 37
  2.4.1 Changes in soil AKST and use since 1945 37
  2.4.2 Changes in cropping systems in NAE 38
  2.4.3 Increasing cropping systems productivity through inputs 40   Mechanization 40   Plant breeding, seeds and genetics 40   Nutrients in cropping systems 43   Pesticide usage in NAE cropping systems 44   Water control in NAE cropping systems 46
  2.4.4 Agricultural products for energy and fuels 47
  2.4.5 Organic cropping systems 47
  2.4.6 Key changes in cropping systems and drivers 48
2.5 Changes in Livestock Systems in NAE 48
  2.5.1 Trends in output and productivity since 1945 49
  2.5.2 Drivers of increased livestock output and productivity 50
  2.5.3 Key changes in the NAE livestock sector 53
2.6 Changes in Forestry Systems 53
  2.6.1 Main trends in NAE forests and forestry production 53
  2.6.2 Forest ownership and control 54
  2.6.3 Forestry as an industry 55
  2.6.4 AKST in forestry 55
  2.6.5 Forest institutions 55
  2.6.6 Drivers of changes in forestry 56
  2.6.7 Trends in NAE forestry 56
2.7 Changes in Aquaculture Production 57
  2.7.1 North American aquaculture 57
  2.7.2 European aquaculture 59
  2.7.3 Science and technology in aquaculture 60
  2.7.4 Key changes in aquaculture 61
2.8 Key Changes in Post-Harvest and Consumption Systems 61
  2.8.1 Changes in the food retail sector in NAE 61
  2.8.2 Concentration and trends at national levels 63
  2.8.3 Changes in food manufacturing and processing 65
  2.8.4 Market segmentation 65
  2.8.5 Food safety, quality regulation and food market niches 66
  2.8.6 Changes in diet/consumption 69
  2.8.7 Key changes in consumption systems 70