Options for Enabling Policies and Regulatory Environments

Coordinating Lead Authors  Regional integration 459
Anne-Marie Izac (France), Henrik Egelyng (Denmark), Gustavo  State trading enterprises for developing country export
Ferreira (Uruguay)     commodities 459  Microfinance and microcredit 460
Lead Authors Alternative trade channels: Fair Trade, certified organics,
David Duthie (UK), Bernard Hubert (France), Niels Louwaars (Nether-     and mark of origin 460
lands), Erika Rosenthal (USA), Steve Suppan (USA), Martin Wierup   7.2.6 Market mechanisms to optimize environmental externalities 462
(Sweden), Morven McLean (Canada), Elizabeth Acheampong (Ghana)  Policy options for internalizing environmental
      externalities 462
Contributing Authors Payments for agroenvironmental services 462
Patrick Avato (Germany/Italy), Daniel de la Torre Ugarte (Peru),   7.2.7 Enhancing governance of trade and technologies 465
Shaun Ferris (UK), Edwin Gyasi (Ghana), Niek Koning (Netherlands),   Governance of trade and environmental decision-
Douglas Murray (USA), Laura T. Raynolds (USA), Peter Robbins (UK)     making 465 International competition policy and antitrust: governing
Review Editor     commodity markets to promote development goals 465
Niels Röling (Netherlands)  Strategic impact assessment and comparative technology
      assessment 466
    7.3 Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health 467
    7.3.1 Food safety 467
Key Messages   Surveillance challenges 467
7.1 Natural Resources and Global Environmental Change 443 Financing a public good 468
7.1.1 Resources, processes of change and policies 443   Food safety standards for domestic public health benefits 469
7.1.2 Reducing the impacts of climate change and the contribution of   7.3.2 Animal health 469
  agriculture to climate change 445  Major epizootic diseases and impacts on trade and
7.1.3 Managing the natural resource base of agriculture 446     developing countries 469  Soils, nutrients and pests 446 Zoonoses as foodborne infections—policies for integrated Genetic resources and agrobiodiversity 447     approach 470 Water scarcity, water quality and the distribution of  Endemic diseases—the major challenge and potential 471
  water 449 Animal welfare 471
7.2 Trade and Markets 452  Priority setting for disease control technologies 472
7.2.1 Trade and markets: the enabling policy context for AKST   7.3.3 Plant health 472
  contributions to sustainability and development goals 452   The challenge of international phytosanitary standards 472
7.2.2 Policy challenges and tradeoffs 453  Opportunities through regionalism 472
7.2.3 Policy flexibility to pursue development, poverty reduction and  Biosafety and plant protection 473
  food security agendas 453 Meeting the plant health needs of small-scale farmers 473  Special products, special safeguard mechanisms and  The private sector and third party certification 473
  deeper preferences 454  Climate change and plant health 473 Distributional impacts of welfare benefits and losses from   7.3.4 Ways forward 474
  trade liberalization 455   7.4 Knowledge and Knowledge Management—Property Rights 475 Meeting new regulatory costs associated with   7.4.1 Public research and the generation of public goods 475
  international trade 456   7.4.2 Multilateral negotiations on rights systems 475
7.2.4 Policy options to address the downward pressure on prices for   7.4.3 Effects of rights on AKST at the national and institutional levels 477
  the small-scale sector 456   7.4.4 Rights systems on natural resources: from simple ownership to  Subsidies 456     bundle of rights 479 Supply management for tropical commodities 458   7.5 Pro-Poor Agricultural Innovation 481 Escalating tariffs 459   7.5.1 Technology supply push and the global agricultural treadmill 481
7.2.5 Options to increase market size, competition, and value capture   7.5.2 Brokered long-term contractual arrangements 482
  in commodity chains to increase incomes for small-scale farm   7.5.3 Endogenous development and traditional knowledge 482
  sector 459   7.5.4 Innovation systems (IS) 485