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of Salmonella occurred when contaminated fishmeal from South America was exported to the U.S. and Europe, causing more than one million human cases in the U.S. alone (Clark et al., 1973; Crump, Griffin and Angulo, 2002). Salmonella contamination has become a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal feed and food products (Plym-Forshell and Wierup, 2006). Endemic diseases-the major challenge and potential

Categorization of livestock diseases is critical for the determination of public intervention, as highlighted in the recent assessment of the EU animal health policy (DG SANCO, 2006). International and national policy and legislation focuses on the control of the major epizootic diseases and, increasingly, on the foodborne zoonotic diseases. Economic compensation in case of outbreaks, surveillance and other measures are generally limited to

     Endemic diseases comprise the majority of animal diseases and, in developed countries, continuous implementation of disease prevention measures directed against these endemic diseases is necessary for efficient production. The economic importance of endemic diseases is recognized and in many developed countries a number of the endemic diseases have been successfully eradicated or controlled (e.g., Aujeszky´s disease in pigs, infectious bovine respiratory disease and bovine virus diarrhea in cattle). Such programs have been found to be very cost effective (e.g., Valle et al., 2005). The increasing focus on reducing antibiotic use to prevent resistance and on animal welfare further emphasizes the importance of control and/or eradication of animal diseases (Wierup, 2000; Angulu et al., 2004).

      Control of animal diseases and the promotion and protection of animal health are essential components of any effective animal breeding and production program (FAO, 1991). However, despite remarkable technical advances in the diagnosis, prevention and control of animal diseases, the


condition of animal health through the developing world remains generally poor, causing substantial economic losses and hindering any improvement in livestock productivity (FAO, 1991, 2002). Consequently, in addition to efforts to minimize the negative effects of the major epizootic and foodborne diseases, policy could also focus on the prevention and control of endemic diseases, even though the producer is generally considered to bear the responsibility for production losses caused by this group of diseases. However, such actions could also have a direct strengthening effect on food safety and food security and, in this respect it has been emphasized that a focus on safe food in the context of strengthening export capacities of developing countries should come second to the primary objective of improving food safety for local consumption (Byrne, 2004).

     The global burden of animal diseases when also including the cost for public health and loss of labor is also estimated to be dominated by the endemic diseases, in contrast to the public focus on the control of the epizootic diseases. Animal welfare

The protection of animal welfare and the demand for a sustainable animal production system, which is increasingly being considered in animal health policies and in SPSassociated regulations, can be an additional constraint for developing countries trying to access international markets. However, sustainable extensive livestock production practices in developing countries that promote animal welfare could open niche market opportunities in developed countries. This is in contrast to intensive livestock production in many sectors of the industrialized world where in the short term the implementation of systems for improved animal welfare often are associated with increased cost of production (OIE, 2005a; Kyprianou, 2006).

     The veterinary services of developing and transition countries are in urgent need of the necessary resources and capacities that will enable their countries to benefit more

Table 7-1. Estimated global burden of infectious animal diseases.

Classification of infectious animal diseases Qualitative estimation of relative number Qualitative estimation of relative cost and importance for major stakeholders Public sector cost Producers
Public sector cost Producers cost
Animal health Public health Developed countries Developing countries
Major epizoootics + +++++ - -* ++
Other major diseases including major zoonoses ++ +++ +++ ++ ++
Endemic diseases including "neglected" zoonoses +++++ + +++++ +++++ +++++
*Diseases eradicated or absent. Elimination policy applied in case of outbreaks when significant costs may occur.
**Losses of production and labor and costs of control and medical treatment.
Source: M. Wierup and K. Ebi.