470 | IAASTD Global Report

Figure 7-9. Infectious animal diseases.

diseases, and also allowing import from individual countries or regions based on their improvement of the animal health status food products (DG SANCO, 2006). However, these policies require a reliable and independent system of certification based on international standards (Thomson et al., 2006).

     Instead of focusing on achieving high value exports from African countries to Europe and the U.S, bilateral agreements between developing countries that protect exporting countries and producers could be promoted (Scoones and Wolmer, 2006). A third alternative e.g., for African countries, is to initially focus on local trade and markets to supply the growing local and regional demand for meat (Kulibaba, 1997; Diao et al., 2005; Scoones and Wolmer, 2006). These alternative policies for developing countries emphasize benefits to their producers by using food safety and animal health standards needed for the local and regional market.

      In addition to the introduction of advanced and new methods for improved and more cost effective disease and outbreak control (e.g., DIVA vaccines), the recent pandemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus demonstrated the importance of providing international support to developing countries when coordinated interventions are required to manage international emergencies, and also that sustained improvements in national disease control systems are required so that countries view such activities as investments rather than internationally imposed costs (Lokuge and Lokuge, 2005). Zoonoses as foodborne infections-policies for integrated approach

The BSE crisis, the avian influenza pandemic and the threat of global warming with vectors and diseases moving into new areas has highlighted the importance of the animal- human link via the food chain and the need for capacity


building for surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases (FAO, 2006d). In addition to these and other emerging zoonotic diseases, as highlighted above, there is also a basic need for effective policies for the prevention of the majority of the foodborne outbreaks that in most part of the world are caused by agents like Salmonella and Campylobacter.

     In the US it is estimated that Campylobacter causes 2 million cases of foodborne infections annually and Salmonella is estimated to cause another 1.4 million infections, the latter at a total estimated annual cost of US$3 billion annually (Mead et al., 1999; USDA, 2007). In developing countries the situation is likely to be at least of the same magnitude. The vast majority of these infections primarily originate from animal production so the overriding aim for the animal health sector is safe food and consumer protection (Schlundt et al., 2004). A problem is that these infections usually cause no or very limited economic losses to animal production. Thus efforts are needed to implement policies with economic incentives for producers to improve hygiene in their animal production in order to decrease the input of potential pathogens to the food chain.

     The need for integrated approaches is emphasized when interventions are needed along the whole food chain. Of particular interest are challenges posed by the increasing global demand for protein as animal feed, in response to the increasing global demand for meat (Morgan and Prakash, 2006). To meet that demand soybean production has increased e.g., in Brazil, which has resulted in deforestation and monoculture followed by environmental degradation from high pesticide use and significant problems with pesticide residues in the soy products produced (Klink and Machado, 2005). In addition, many countries have experienced an increased risk of Salmonella contamination in soy meal, which constitutes an important route for introducing Salmonella into animal production when used as animal feed (Hald et al., 2006; EFSA, 2006b). A pandemic spread