History and Impact of AKST

Coordinating Lead Authors:
Danilo Cardenas (Philippines) and Hong Yang (Australia)

Lead Authors:
Duong Van Chin (Viet Nam), Mahmudul Karim (Bangladesh), Harold McArthur (USA), Charito Medina (Philippines), Vanaja Ramprasad (India), and Girija Shrestha (Nepal)

Contributing Authors:
Arturo ArgaƱosa (Philippines), Richard Daite (Philippines), James B. Friday (USA), Fezoil Luz Decena (Philippines), Rasheed Sulaiman (India), Douglas Vincent (USA), Halina Zaleski (USA), Yuan Zhou (China)

Review Editors:
Satinder Bajaj (India), D.J. Connor (Australia)

Key Messages

2.1 Agriculture and AKST in ESAP 20
2.2 Trends in AKST: Agricultural Practices 20
  2.2.1 Application of AKST to crop production 20 Expanding irrigated areas and adopting irrigationtechnology 20 Water management in rainfed crop farming systems 22
  2.2.2    Development and application of modern technology and inputs 23 High-yielding varieties—the Green Revolution 23 Mechanization 24 Fertilization 25 Crop protection 25
  2.2.3 Trend in crop production and application of AKST in major farming systems 25   Growth of crop production and increase in food availability 25
   AKST in major crop farming systems—three cases 26 Emerging trends on biofuel production 29
  2.2.4    Application of AKST to livestock production 29 Livestock production systems 29 Changes in dietary patterns on livestock production 30
  2.2.5   Application of AKST to forest production 30 Native forest management 30 Nontimber forest products 31 Plantation forestry 32 Wood-processing technology 32 Agroforestry 32 Community and social forestry 33
  2.2.6 Application of AKST to fisheries production 33 Capture fisheries 34 Aquaculture fisheries 35
  2.2.7 Organic agriculture 35 Crop organic farming 35 Organic livestock 36 Organic aquaculture 36
2.3 Trends in AKST: Organization and Institutions 36
  2.3.1 Organizations and institutions that helped shape AKST in ESAP 36 Composition of different AKST organizations in ESAP and their institutional behavior 36 Roles of different organizations in generating, disseminating and adopting AKST 40 Transformation of AKST institutions 40 Interactions and links among AKST organizations 41
  2.3.2 Capacity of AKST organizations in generating, accessing, disseminating and adapting knowledge and information 43
  2.3.3 Investment in AKST 43
2.4 Effects of AKST on Development and Sustainability Goals 46
  2.4.1 Effect of modern AKST on livelihood, poverty and hunger 46 History of agrarian change and development 46 The Green Revolution, food security and poverty alleviation 46 Effects of biotechnology 47 Agricultural sustainability 48
  2.4.2 Improving nutrition and human health 49
  2.4.3 Effect of AKST on environmental sustainability 51 Effect on soil sustainability 51 Water resource depletion and intensification of waterscarcity 52 Water-quality degradation and nonpoint-source waterpollution 52 Loss of agrobiodiversity 53 Pest and disease incidence and pesticides 53
  2.4.4 Gender, equity and sustainability 54 AKST, workload and time allocation for agricultural production 54 Gender roles and AKST 54 AKST and changes in decision patterns 54 Employment opportunities and income distribution 55 Ownership and control over resources 56 Measures taken for equity and sustainable development 56