398 | IAASTD Global Report

participatory domestication processes (Leakey et al., 2003; World Agroforestry Centre, 2005; Garrity, 2006)

6.5 Sustainable Management of Fishery and Aquaculture Systems

Globally, fisheries products  are the most widely traded foods, with net exports in 2002 providing US$17.4 billion in foreign exchange earnings for developing countries, a value greater than the combined net exports of rice, coffee, sugar, and tea (FAO, 2002). In spite of the important role that fisheries play in the national and local economies of many countries, fisheries around the globe are frequently overfished and overexploited as a result of not only weak governance, but of poor management, non-selective tech­nology, perverse subsidies, corruption, unrestricted access and destructive fishing practices (FAO, 2002; World Bank, 2004). Reforming both the governance and management of these critical natural resources is essential to stable and long term economic development, future food security, sustain­able livelihoods, poverty prevention and reduction, con­tinuation of the ecosystem goods and services provided by these natural resources, and the conservation of biodiversity (Fisheries Opportunity Assessment, 2006; Christie et al., 2007; Sanchirico and Wilen, 2007).

Governance and management options
In most cultures, wild fisheries and marine resources are considered as common property and suffer from open, un­regulated access to these valuable resources. The concept of land tenure and property rights has been instrumental in re­forming terrestrial agriculture and empowering small-scale farmers. Similarly, the concepts of marine tenure and access privileges are needed to address the "wild frontier" attitude generated by open access to fisheries and to promote shared responsibilities and comanagement of resources (Pomeroy and Rivera-Guieb, 2006; Sanchirico and Wilen, 2007). Sev­eral traditional management approaches, such as in the Pa­cific Islands, have evolved that are based upon the concept of marine tenure.
      For fisheries, major goals of zoning are to (1) protect the most productive terrestrial, riparian, wetland and ma­rine habitats which serve as fisheries nurseries and spawning aggregation sites, and (2) allocate resource use—and thus stewardship responsibility—to specific users or user groups. Appropriate zoning would allow for the most sustainable use of various habitats types for capture fisheries, aquacul­ture, recreation, biodiversity conservation and maintenance of ecosystem health. Future zoning for specific uses and user groups would also shift shared responsibility onto those designated users, thus increasing self-enforcement and com­pliance (Sanchirico and Wilen, 2007). The greatest benefit would be in those countries where government, rule of law and scientific management capacity is weak.
      Improving fisheries management is critical for address­ing food security and livelihoods in many developing coun­tries, where fishing often serves as the last social safety net for poor communities and for those who have no land ten­ure rights. Fisheries has strong links to poverty—at least 20% of those employed in fisheries earn less than US$1 per day—and children often work in the capture and/or process-


ing sectors, where they work long hours under dangerous conditions.

Tenure and access privileges. Large-scale social and ecologi­cal experiments are needed to implement culturally appro­priate approaches to marine tenure and access privileges that can be applied to both large-scale industrialized fish­eries and small-scale artisanal fisheries (Fisheries Opportu­nity Assessment, 2006; Pomeroy and Rivera-Guieb, 2006). Rights-based  or  privilege-based  approaches  to  resource access can alter behavioral incentives and align economic incentives  with  conservation  objectives   (Sanchirico  and Wilen, 2007).

Seascape "zoning". As in terrestrial systems, zoning would protect essential and critical fisheries habitats that are nec­essary for "growing" fisheries populations and maintain­ing ecosystem health. The science of large-scale planning is relatively young and further research and implementa­tion is needed. Future zoning should allow for the most sustainable use of various marine habitat types for capture fisheries, low trophic level aquaculture, recreation, biodi­versity conservation and maintenance of ecosystem health. Ultimately, integrating landscape and seascape use designs are needed to conserve and protect ecosystem goods and services, conserve soils, reduce sedimentation and pollution runoff, protect the most productive terrestrial, wetlands and marine habitats, and promote improved water resources management.
      Socioeconomic and environmental scenarios could be developed that explore the potential tradeoffs and benefits from applying different management regimes to improve wild fisheries management. Scenarios can guide the applica­tion of science to management decisions for reforming fish­eries governance, both large-scale and small-scale fisheries, and incorporate cultural and traditional knowledge (Fisher­ies Opportunity Assessment, 2006; Philippart et al., 2007). The Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) approach in the Pacific builds upon cultural practices of setting aside specific areas as off-limits to fishing for rebuilding fisheries and biodiversity (www.LMMAnetwork.org).
      Ecosystem-based  management approaches   focus   on conserving the underlying ecosystem health and functions, thus maintaining ecosystem goods and services (Pikitch et al., 2004). Developing these approaches requires an un­derstanding of large-scale ecological processes; identifying critical fisheries nurseries, habitats and linkages between habitats, such as between mangrove forests and coral reefs; understanding freshwater inflows into coastal estuaries and maintaining the quantity, quality and timing of freshwater flows that make wetlands some of the most productive eco­systems in the world; and how human activities, such as fishing, affects ecosystem function (Bakun and Weeks, 2006; Hiddinks et al,. 2006; Lotze et al., 2006; Olsen et al., 2006; www.worldfishcenter.org). Ecosystem based fisheries man­agement also requires protection of essential fish habitats and large-scale regional use planning.
      Ecosystem based fisheries management approaches are relatively new management tools. Given the ecological com­plexity of ecological systems, especially the tropical systems in many developing countries, the application of Ecosystem