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based fisheries management needs to be further developed and assessed. Major governance and ecological challenges exist as management is scaled up in geographic area. In­stitutional, governance and environmental challenges will require monitoring, evaluation and adaptive management (Christie et al., 2007).

Fisheries reserves. The design and establishment of net­works of fisheries reserves are necessary to improve and protect fisheries productivity, as well as improve resilience in the face of climate change and increasing variability. Well-designed and placed fisheries reserves, which restrict all extractive uses, are needed to rebuild severely depleted ecosystems and fisheries and to serve as "insurance" against future risks; however, critical science gaps will need to be addressed before fishery reserves can be effectively utilized (Gell and Roberts, 2003).

Multispecies approaches. The concept of "maximum sus­tainable yield" and managing by a species-by-species or population-by-population approach has not proved effec­tive for fisheries management given the complexity of eco­systems and foodwebs. Overfishing and "fishing down the food web" has occurred, seriously threatening the future productivity of wild fisheries (Pauly et al., 2005). Non-lin­ear, multispecies models which incorporate trophic levels, reproductive potential  and  "maximum economic yield" need to be developed and applied for determining more sus­tainable levels, types and sizes of fish extracted (Pauly and Adler, 2005).

Environmentally   friendly   extraction   technologies.   New technology is needed that selectively removes target species and size classes, thus reducing wasteful "bycatch", allowing nonreproductive individuals to reach maturity, and protect­ing large individuals that disproportionately contribute to the next generation (Hsieh et al., 2006). Some advocate that destructive fishing practices—such as bottom-trawling and blast fishing—are illegal in some countries and should be prohibited and replaced with nondestructive methods (Bav-inck et al., 2005; Dew and McConnaughey, 2005).
      About 30% of capture fisheries are currently used to create "fish meal" destined for aquaculture and other live­stock, and this percentage is expected to increase as aqua-culture expands and more high-trophic level fish (such as salmon, grouper and tuna) are cultured and farmed. Ill-placed and designed aquaculture facilities have also reduced the productivity of wild fisheries and degraded environments through loss of critical habitats, especially mangrove forests and coral reefs; introduction of invasive species, pests and diseases; and use of pesticides and antibiotics.

Environmentally   friendly   and   sustainable   aquaculture. While aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food sectors in terms of productivity, this achievement has been at great cost and risk to the health and well-being of the environ­ment, as well as the well-being of small-scale fishers and farmers. The future of aquaculture is truly at a crossroads: the future direction of aquaculture will affect the health and productivity of wild fisheries, the survival of many liveli­hoods, and global food security (World Bank 2006).


      The future contribution of aquaculture to global food security and livelihoods will depend on the promotion of more environmentally sustainable and less polluting culture techniques; the use of low-trophic level species, especially filter-feeding species; the use of native species; appropriate siting and management approaches; and inclusion and em­powerment of small-scale producers (World Bank, 2006). The culture of local, native species should be promoted to decrease the displacement of native species by escaped exotics, such as tilapia. Proper siting of aquaculture facili­ties is crucial to reduce environmental impact and ensure long-term sustainability and profitability; improperly sited aquaculture facilities, especially for shrimp farms, have led to the destruction of wetlands and mangrove forest that are vital to capture fisheries and the protection of coastal com­munities from storms, tsunamis and other coastal hazards. Enclosed, recirculating tanks that are properly sited show great promise in meeting some of these objectives and in de­creasing the pollution of wild gene pools through escapes of species used in aquaculture. A more balanced approach to aquaculture is needed that incorporates environmental sus­tainability, integrated water resources management and eq­uitable resources use and access to benefits (www.ec.europa .eu; www.icsf.net; www.worldfishcenter.org).
      Greater emphasis is needed to develop sound fisheries "growth" practices and approaches—such ecosystem based fisheries management, networks  of reserves, new quota models and new extraction technology—which will restore ecosystem productivity and resiliency. It is estimated that with proper fishing practices, capture fisheries production could be increased significantly, reversing present declines.

6.6 Improve Natural Resource Management and Habitat Preservation

6.6.1 The landscape management challenge
Losing habitats is the greatest threat to biodiversity; over the past 50 years people have destroyed or fragmented eco­systems faster and more extensively than in any period in human history (MA, 2005). Rapidly growing demands for food, freshwater, timber, and fuel driving this change have put enormous pressure on biodiversity. The creation of more conservation management areas, promotion of local biodiversity, increased participatory approaches to natural resource management (e.g., GELOSE project, Madagascar) and a close collaboration between all relevant stakeholders in biodiversity management initiatives (Mayers and Bass, 2004) will be vital to addressing further loss of existing habitats.
      Restoration of fragile habitats is a way of improving degraded ecosystems or creating new areas to compensate for loss of habitat elsewhere. Enhancing transboundary ini­tiatives (e.g., Agenda Transandina for mountain biodiversity in the Andes) has multiple benefits to conserve and restore fragile habitats. The appropriate use of technology, such as remote sensing or GIS can improve monitoring of ecosys­tem fragmentation (e.g., INBio Costa Rica) and can help in the protection of large areas of native vegetation within regions to serve as sources of species, individuals and genes. Landscape management can also help maintain or reestab­lish connectivity between native habitats at multiple scales