Options to Enhance the Impact of AKST on Development and Sustainability Goals | 397

mity of marketed products (Leakey et al, 2005) and enhance farmers' livelihoods (Schreckenberg et al., 2002; Degrande et al., 2006). Domestication can thus be used as an incentive for more sustainable food production, diversification of the rural economy, and to create employment opportunities in product processing and trade. The domestication of these species previously only harvested as extractive resources, creates a new suite of cash crops for smallholder farmers (Leakey et al., 2005). Depending on the market size, some of these new cash crops may enhance the national econo­mies, but at present the greatest benefit may come from lo­cal level trade for fruits, nuts, vegetables and other food and medicinal products for humans and animals, including wood for construction, and fuel.
       This  commercialization is crucial to the  success  of domestication, but should be done in ways that benefit local people and does not destroy their tradition and cul­ture (Leakey et al., 2005). Many indigenous fruits, nuts and vegetables are highly nutritious (Leakey, 1999b). The consumption of some traditional foods can help to boost immune systems, making these foods beneficial against dis­eases, including HIV/AIDS (Barany et al., 2003; Villarreal et al., 2006). These new nonconventional crops may play a vital role in the future for conserving local and traditional knowledge systems and culture, as they have a high local knowledge base which is being promoted through partici­patory domestication processes (Leakey et al., 2003; World Agroforestry Centre, 2005; Garrity, 2006; Tchoundjeu et al., 2006). Together these strategies are supportive of food sovereignty and create an approach to biodiscovery that supports the rights of farmers and local communities speci­fied in the Convention on Biological Diversity.
       A participatory approach to the domestication of indig­enous trees is appropriate technology for rural communi­ties worldwide (Tchoundjeu et al., 2006), especially in the tropics and subtropics, with perhaps special emphasis on Africa (Leakey, 2001ab), where the Green Revolution has been least successful. In each area a priority setting exer­cise is recommended to identify the species with the great­est potential (Franzel et al., 1996). Domestication should be implemented in parallel with the development of posthar-vest and value-adding technologies and the identification of appropriate market opportunities and supply chains. With poverty, malnutrition and hunger still a major global prob­lem for about half the world population, there is a need to develop and implement a range of domestication programs for locally-selected species, modeled on that developed by ICRAF and partners in Cameroon/Nigeria (Tchoundjeu et al., 2006), on a wide scale. There will also be a need for considerable investment in capacity development in the ap­propriate horticultural techniques (e.g., vegetative propaga­tion and genetic selection of trees) at the community level, in NARS, NARES, NGOs and CBOs, with support from ICRAF and regional agroforestry centers.
        Agroforestry can be seen as a multifunctional package for agriculture, complemented by appropriate social sci­ences, rural development programs and capacity develop­ment. Better land husbandry can rehabilitate degraded land. For many poor farmers this means the mitigation of soil nutrient depletion by biological nitrogen fixation and the simultaneous restoration of the agroecosystem using low-


input, easily-adopted practices, such as the diversification of the farming system with tree crops that initiate an agroeco-logical succession and produce marketable products.        Over the last 25 years agroforestry research has pro­vided some strong indications on how to go forward by re­planting watersheds, integrating trees back into the farming systems to increase total productivity, protecting riparian strips, contour planting, matching tree crops to vulnerable landscapes, soil amelioration and water harvesting. There are many tree species indigenous to different ecological zones, that have potential to play these important roles, and some of these are currently the subject of domestica­tion programs. In this way, the ecological services tradition­ally obtained by long periods of unproductive fallow are provided by productive agroforests yielding a wide range of food and nonfood products. This approach also supports the multifunctionality of agriculture as these species and products are central to food sovereignty, nutritional security and to maintenance of tradition and culture. Additionally, women are often involved in the marketing and process­ing of these products. Consequently this approach, which brings together AST with traditional and local knowledge, provides an integrated package which could go a long way towards meeting development and sustainability goals. The challenge for the development of future AKST is to develop this "Localization" package (Chapter 3.2.4; 3.4) on a scale that will have the needed impacts.
        This integrated package is appropriate for large-scale development  programs,  ideally  involving  private   sector partners (building on existing models—e.g., Panik, 1998; Mitschein and Miranda, 1998; Attipoe et al., 2006). Lo­calization is the grassroots pathway to rural development, which has been somewhat neglected in recent decades domi­nated by Globalization. Programs like that proposed would help to redress the balance between Globalization and Lo­calization, so that both pathways can play their optimal role. This should increase benefit flows to poor countries, and to marginalized people. There would be a need for consider­able investment in capacity development in the appropriate horticultural and agroforestry techniques (e.g., vegetative propagation, nursery development, domestication and ge­netic selection of trees) at the community level, in NARS, NARES, NGOs and CBOs, with support from ICRAF and regional agroforestry centers.
         By providing options for producing nutritious food and managing labor, generating income, agroforestry technolo­gies may play a vital role in the coming years in helping reduce hunger and promote food security (Thrupp, 1998; Cromwell, 1999; Albrecht and Kandji, 2003; Schroth et al., 2004; Oelberman et al., 2004; Reyes et al., 2005; Jiambo, 2006; Rasul and Thapa, 2006; Toledo and Burlingame, 2006).
       Recent developments to domesticate traditionally im­portant indigenous trees are offering new opportunities to enhance farmer livelihoods in ways which traditionally pro­vided household needs (especially foods) as extractive re­sources from natural forests and woodlands (Leakey et. al., 2005; Schreckenberg et al., 2002). These new non-conven­tional crops may play a vital role in the future for conserv­ing local and traditional knowledge systems, as they have a high local knowledge base which is being promoted through