Historical and Current Perspectives of AKST

Coordinating Lead Authors:
Kawther Latiri (Tunisia), Alia Gana (Tunisia), Kamel Shideed (Iraq)

Lead Authors:
Jean Albergel (France), Stefania Grando (Italy), Yalcin Kaya (Turkey), Farzana Panhwar (Pakistan), Manzoor Qadir (Pakistan), Ayfer Tan (Turkey), Selma Tozanli (Turkey)

Contributing Authors:
Mohamed Annabi (Tunisia), Celine Dutilly-Diane (France), Gulcan Eraktan (Turkey), Alessandra Galie (Italy), Lubna Qaryouti (Jordan), Lokman Zaibet (Tunisia)

Review Editors:
Iftikhar Ahmad (Pakistan), Muna Hindiyeh Kazaleh (Jordan)

Key Messages

2.1 Natural Resources, Agricultural Production and Infrastructure 30
  2.1.1 Land use and land cover 30
  2.1.2 Agricultural production, cropping patterns and productivity 30 Cereals 30 Maize, legumes and industrial crops 31 Horticultural and vegetable crops 31 Oil crops 32 Crop-livestock-range systems 32 Use of inputs 32 Animal products 33 CWANA case studies 33
  2.1.3 Water resource development and management 34 Trends in potential water resources in CWANA 34 Evolution in water uses and water demand 34 Trends in water strategies and policies 34 Effect of global changes on water resources 37
  2.1.4 Water management infrastructure for agriculture 37 Large dams 37 Small dams 37 Infrastructures for water harvesting 38 Irrigation infrastructures 39
  2.1.5 Land degradation and water quality deterioration 39 Land degradation 39 Water-quality deterioration 40
  2.1.6 Agriculture and carbon sequestration 41 Soil organic stock and the potential of carbon sequestration 41 Incentives for land-use change 42
  2.1.7 Agrobiodiversity 42 Changes in agrobiodiversity and agroecosystems 42 Introduction of modern varieties, case studies on wheat 43 Expansion of agriculture and crop and plant diversity change 43 Market prospects and consumer preferences 44 Change in rangeland composition 45 Effects on animal breeds 45 Maintenance and conservation of agrobiodiversity in CWANA 45 Exploitation and use of agrobiodiversity 48
2.2 Policies, Institutions and Regulations 48
  2.2.1 Development strategies and agricultural policies 48
  2.2.2 Land tenure including agrarian reform 49
  2.2.3 Trade policy, international and regional agreements and the
WTO 49 Trade arrangements in the region 49 Trade negotiations and expected benefits 50 Challenges and relevance to AKST 50
  2.2.4 Professional and community organizations 50 Turkey: case study 50
  2.2.5 Agricultural risk management policies, including drought risk 52 Main risks affecting agricultural activity in CWANA 52 Risk management to reduce farm household income variation 53 Agricultural risk management policies in CWANA 54 Drought risk management in CWANA 55 Environmental policies and regulations 56
2.3 History of Public and Private Sector Investment in AKST 57
  2.3.1 Investments in agricultural research and development 57
  2.3.2 History of public agricultural research 57
  2.3.3 Human resources in public agricultural research and development 57
  2.3.4 Research intensity in public agricultural research and development 58
  2.3.5 Returns to investments 59
2.4 Market Trends and Socioeconomic Evolution 60
  2.4.1 Agriculture market shares of CWANA in global and regional markets 60 CWANA and international trade of cereals 60 CWANA in international trade of oil crops 61 CWANA in international trade of processed food 61 CWANA in international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables 62 CWANA in worldwide imports of meat 63 CWANA in world imports of feed 63
  2.4.2 Changing lifestyles, consumer preferences and demands 63
    2.4.3 Local markets and marketing channels 64
    2.4.4 Labor market 65
    2.4.5 Findings 66