Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Units | 291

NGO    nongovernmental organization
NIAS    US National Institute for Agricultural Security
N2O    nitrous oxide
NPK    nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
NRM    Natural resource management
NTFP    non-timber forest product
OA    organic agriculture
OECD    Organization of Economic Cooperation and
OF    organic food/farming
OIE    World Organization for Animal Health
P    phosphorus
PBR    plant breeders rights
PCA    Partnership and Cooperation Agreement
PE    partial equilibrium
PEFC    Program of Endorsement of Forest
PES    Payments for environmental services
PGRFA    Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
PIPRA    Public-Sector Intellectual Property Resource
for Agriculture
ppm    parts per million
ppmv    parts per million by volume
PPA    participatory poverty assessment
PPP    Purchasing Power Parity
PRA    participatory rural appraisal
R&D    research and development
rBST    recombinant bovine somatotropin
RELU    Rural Economy and Land Use Programme
RFID    radio frequency identification
RNA    ribonucleic acid
RNAi    RNA interference
ROR    rates of return
RRA    rapid rural appraisal
RTO    Research and technology organization
S&E    science and engineering
S&T    science and technology
SEPA    Scottish Environment Protection Agency
SFP    Single farm payment
SME    small or medium size enterprise
SPIA    Standing Panel on Impact Assessment
SPLT    Substantive Patent Law Treaty


SPS    Sanitary and Phytosanitary
SRES    Special Report on Emission Scenarios
SRL    Sustainable Rural Livelihoods
SSA    Sub-Saharan Africa
TAC    Technical Advisory Committee of the CGIAR
TFP    Total Factor Productivity
Tg    teragram, unit of mass equal to one
TNC    transnational corporation
tonne    103 kg (metric ton)
TRIPS    Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
TURF    Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries
TWAS    Third World Academy of Scientists
UN    United Nations
UNCBD    UN Convention on Biodiversity
UNCCD    United Nations Convention to Combat
UNCED    UN Conference on Environment and
UNCTAD    UN Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP    United Nations Development Program
UNEP    United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO    United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization
UNFCCC    United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change
UNICEF    United Nations Children's Fund
UPOV    International Union for the Protection of New
Varieties of Plants
US    United States
USDA    US Department of Agriculture
vCJD    variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
WAR DA    Africa Rice Center
WHO    World Health Organization
WIPO    World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO    World Meteorological Organization
WRI    World Resources Institute
WSSD    World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO    World Trade Organization
WWF    World Wildlife Fund
yr   year
|jg    microgram