Page references followed by f, t, and b indicate figures, tables, and boxes, respectively.

Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS), 203
Accountability, 207
Actors, capacity strengthening for, 181
Adaptive mosaic scenario
2007-2015, 149–51, 151–53
implications for innovation and
development policies, 160, 162
states of component variables, 132t–137t
Adaptive research, 91
Aflatoxins, 56
African palm, 35
Agrarian reform (AR)
agricultural development and, 194–95
demands for, 22
food sovereignty and, 20, 192
income levels and, 146, 149
land tenure and, 16
Agreement on the Transfer of Material, 179
expansion of, 108, 113
food chains, 42–44
learning partnerships and, 83b
in life as it is scenario, 145, 146, 148, 149
non-food products and, 10–11
in order from strength scenario, 142, 144
See also Conventional/productivist system
Agricultura campesina. See Traditional/
indigenous system
Agricultural extension services
adaptive research and, 91
agroecology and, 171
extension and technology transfer systems,
financing and, 161
food security and, 192
grassroots institutions and, 198–99
integration of, 86
national research organizations and, 87,
participatory approach and, 177
policies for, 204–5
Produce Foundations and, 90b
Agricultural Information and Knowledge
approach, 5
Agricultural Knowledge, Science and
Technology. See AKST systems
Agricultural production characteristics and
agrofuels (bioenergy crops), 41–42
food chains, 42–44
gender aspects, 48–50
knowledge, 45–48
      regional trends, 32–42
resources available, 28–32
sociocultural characteristics, 44–45
climate change and, 24–26
importance to LAC, 27–28
infectious diseases and, 26b
Agrifood chains, 42–44
conventional systems and, 199–200
in LAC region, 102
productivity and, 50–51
as resource, 29
self-training and, 204
small-farmer processes and technical
assistance, 203
and sustainable management of production
systems, 199
traditional/indigenous system and, 7, 200
See also Biodiversity
acute and chronic toxicity due to, 60
ecosystem contamination from, 58–59
environmental and health costs from, 63t
food safety and, 55–56
reduction of (See Agroecological system)
sustainability and, 55
See also Pest management
Agroecological areas in LAC, 11t
Agroecological system
AKST impact on, 106
characteristics, 7, 8t
development of, 95
incentives for, 170–71
modernization and, 48
productivity of, 52–54
sustainability of, 55
Agrofuels (bioenergy crops). See Bioenergy and
AKST systems (Agricultural Knowledge, Science
and Technology)
adaptive mosaic scenario, 150–51, 152–53
agenda, 89–91, 92b, 93t–94t
civil society and, 90b
clients of, 91
decentralizing, 197
definition of, 5
effectiveness and impact of, 105–8
evolution of, 86–87
factors conditioning potential of, 88t
financial resources and administration of,
global orchestration scenario, 131–37, 139

  impacts factors, 88t
institutional and administrative constraints,
integration of, 168–70, 169f
interactions between organizations and
knowledge networks, 87–89
knowledge, science, and technology from
agroecological perspective, 95
knowledge and institutes, relationships
with, 169f
life as it is scenario, 145–46, 148
local and third sector organizations in,
national organizations in, 78–80
order from strength scenario, 141, 143
Patronatos organizations in, 79b
performance monitoring and assessment,
priority research processes, 94
regional organizations and mechanisms in,
research styles, 91–94
society’s perception of, 89
technogarden scenario, 155, 158
transition financing, 210
triangular relationships, 168, 169f
variables changes, responses to, 101–5
Andean region
bacterial wilt in, 83b
climate, 25t
Consortium for the Sustainable
Development of the Andean Eco-region
countries and areas, 10t
environmental sustainability in, 172
In-Situ Cultivation of Cultivars and Wild
Relatives 2001-2005 project, Peru, 194
land use, 32t, 33, 33f
national research institutes, 204
production growth rates, 98t
world view, 7, 9f
Animals, 29
Aquaculture in Amazonia, 172
Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems,
environmental impacts on, 58–59
AR. See Agrarian reform
Associative networks, 195–96
Basic needs concept, 191
Basic research, 91–94, 92b, 170
Bean, common (Phaseolus vulgaris), 29
Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 19b–20b