Executive Summary of the Synthesis Report | 9

due to inertia in the climate system. However, since further changes in the climate are inevitable adaptation is also im­perative. Actions directed at addressing climate change and promoting sustainable development share some important goals such as equitable access to resources and appropriate technologies.
     Some "win-win" mitigation opportunities have already been identified. These include land use approaches such as lower rates of agricultural expansion into natural habitats; afforestation, reforestation, increased efforts to avoid defor­estation, agroforestry, agroecological systems, and restora­tion of underutilized or degraded lands and rangelands and land use options such as carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, reduction and more efficient use of nitrogenous inputs; effective manure management and use of feed that increases livestock digestive efficiency. Policy options related to regu­lations and investment opportunities include financial incen­tives to maintain and increase forest area through reduced deforestation and degradation and improved management and the development and utilization of renewable energy sources. The post-2012 regime has to be more inclusive of all agricultural activities such as reduced emission from de­forestation and soil degradation to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by agriculture and forestry sectors.

Human health
Despite the evident and complex links between health, nu­trition, agriculture, and AKST, improving human health is not generally an explicit goal of agricultural policy. Agricul­ture and AKST can affect a range of health issues including undernutrition, chronic diseases, infectious diseases, food safety, and environmental and occupational health. Ill heath in the farming community can in turn reduce agricultural productivity and the ability to develop and deploy appropri­ate AKST. Ill health can result from undernutrition, as well as over-nutrition. Despite increased global food production over recent decades, undernutrition is still a major global public health problem, causing over 15% of the global dis­ease burden. Protein energy and micronutrient malnutrition remain challenges, with high variability between and within countries. Food security can be improved through policies and programs to increase dietary diversity and through de­velopment and deployment of existing and new technologies for production, processing, preservation, and distribution of food.
     AKST policies and practices have increased production and new mechanisms for food processing. Reduced dietary quality and diversity and inexpensive foods with low nu­trient density have been associated with increasing rates of worldwide obesity and chronic disease. Poor diet through­out the life course is a major risk factor for chronic dis­eases, which are the leading cause of global deaths. There is a need to focus on consumers and the importance of dietary quality as main drivers of production, and not merely on quantity or price. Strategies include fiscal policies (taxation, trade regimes) for health-promoting foods and regulation of food product formulation, labeling and commercial in­formation.
     Globalization of the food supply, accompanied by con­centration of food distribution and processing companies,


and growing consumer awareness increase the need for effective, coordinated, and proactive national food safety systems. Health concerns that could be addressed by AKST include the presence of pesticide residues, heavy metals, hor­mones, antibiotics and various additives in the food system as well as those related to large-scale livestock farming.
     Strengthened food safety measures are important and necessary in both domestic and export markets and can im­pose significant costs. Some countries may need help in meet­ing food control costs such as monitoring and inspection, and costs associated with market rejection of contaminated commodities. Taking a broad and integrated agroecosystem and human health approach can facilitate identification of animal, plant, and human health risks, and appropriate AKST responses.
     Worldwide, agriculture accounts for at least 170,000 occupational deaths each year: half of all fatal accidents. Machinery and equipment, such as tractors and harvesters, account for the highest rates of injury and death, particu­larly among rural laborers. Other important health hazards include agrochemical poisoning, transmissible animal dis­eases, toxic or allergenic agents, and noise, vibration and ergonomic hazards. Improving occupational health requires a greater emphasis on health protection through develop­ment and enforcement of health and safety regulations. Poli­cies should explicitly address tradeoffs between livelihood benefits and environmental, occupational and public health risks.
     The incidence and geographic range of many emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are influenced by the in­tensification of crop and livestock systems. Serious socioeco-nomic impacts can arise when diseases spread widely within human or animal populations, or when they spill over from animal reservoirs to human hosts. Most of the factors that contribute to disease emergence will continue, if not inten­sify. Integrating policies and programs across the food chain can help reduce the spread of infectious diseases; robust detection, surveillance, monitoring, and response programs are critical.

Natural resource management45
Natural resources, especially those of soil, water, plant and animal diversity, vegetation cover, renewable energy sources, climate and ecosystem services are fundamental for the structure and function of agricultural systems and for social and environmental sustainability, in support of life on earth. Historically the path of global agricultural development has been narrowly focused on increased productivity rather than on a more holistic integration of natural resources manage­ment (NRM) with food and nutritional security. A holistic, or systems-oriented approach, is preferable because it can address the difficult issues associated with the complexity of food and other production systems in different ecologies, locations and cultures.
     AKST to resolve NRM exploitation issues, such as the mitigation of soil fertility through synthetic inputs and natural processes, is often available and well understood.
5 Capture fisheries and forestry have not been as well covered as other aspects of NRM.