74 | IAASTD Synthesis Report

means of linking consumers and producers to traditional and local identities have been developed to give value in the marketplace to traditional and local knowledge and foods [ESAP SDM; Global Chapters 3, 4]. Some of the certified foods available today also include the "quality of life" val­ues important to traditional producers or local communi­ties [Global Chapter 3]. An increasing number of commer­cial actors in agrifood and agrochemical industries also are demonstrating their commitment to sustainable production and retailing through accreditation, auditing and traceabil-ity [Global Chapter 2, 3; LAC SDM].

Issues of laws, regulations and rights. It is recognized—yet not accepted at all policy levels—that innovations to secure rights for farmers, traditional people and citizens over ger-mplasm, food, natural resources or territories are needed if combined sustainability and development goals are to be met [ESAP Chapter 3; Global Chapters 3, 7]. A number of countries (e.g., Mali), indigenous peoples (e.g., the Awajun, Peru) and local governments [e.g., various municipalities in the Philippines] have adopted the principles of food sover­eignty as well as normative policy frameworks and regula­tions that differentiate their own needs and circumstances from the dominant global arrangements [Global Chapter 2; LAC SDM].

Options for action

Four key areas for action were identified:

(1) Affirm local and traditional knowledge [NAE SDM, Chapter 4] by investment in the scientific, local and tradi­tional conservation, developing and using local and tradi­tional plants, animals and other useful biological materials, using advanced techniques as well as sophisticated applica­tion of participatory and collaborative approaches [Global Chapter 8]. Specific investments include development of greater professional and organizational capacity at all levels for research and development with and for local and tra­ditional people and their organizations [ESAP SDM; LAC SDM; NAE SDM] and support for multistakeholder AKST forums at all levels for building a shared understanding and collective vision among divergent interests [Global Chapter 7; LAC SDM; NAE SDM]. Options for affirmation include documentation and "archiving"  of local and traditional people's knowledge products, knowledge generating pro­cesses and technologies—for instance in formal knowledge banks as well as in community-held catalogues of practices, designs and ancestral plant and animal genetic resources; and targeted support for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop, fish, forest and animal genetic resources [LAC SDM].

(2) In education, give higher priority for agroecological and integrated approaches in primary through tertiary educa­tion and research [Global Chapter 3, NAE SDM, Chapter 4]. Invest in a broader range of social sciences to under­stand and help design solutions to power asymmetries in AKST; arrange for effective encounters between knowledge actors and knowledge organizations [Global Chapter 2];


widen development of the role of local and traditional train­ers in educational curricula and deepen and strengthen the educational options. Invest in occupational education and farmer-centered learning opportunities that are accessible and relevant for traditional and indigenous peoples and ac­tively extend connectivity and ICTs to traditional and local knowledge actors [Global Chapter 3, NAE SDM, Chapter 4] and expand the coverage of the above.

(3)  Continue institutional innovation in systems such as Fair Trade, geographic identification and in value chains that shorten connections between producers and consumers [ESAP Chapter 3; Global Chapter 3; NAE SDM]. Support the valuation of local and traditional knowledge. Develop culturally appropriate modes of assessing traditional and lo­cal AKST contributions to achievement of development and sustainability goals [Global Chapter 6]. Widen support of efforts to create local opportunity for domestication of wild and semiwild species [Global Chapter 3]. Support to con­servation and evolution of local and traditional medicinal plants, knowledge of healing and health care systems [ESAP Chapter 3] as well as certification, regulation and marketing schemes that take account of traditional and local people's criteria and standards are options that make visible in the market places, societies and at policy levels the value of lo­cal and traditional knowledge.

(4) Institutions, laws and regulations offer substantial op­tions.

•   Decentralization and devolution of services; local gov­ernment  support  to  community-driven  development [Global Chapter 7];
•   Investment in research to underpin the design of meth­ods and processes for integration of AKST decision-making at different scales  [Global Chapter 8; NAE SDM, Chapters 3, 4];
•   Follow-through on the Joint Indigenous People's State­ments, 1999,2007;
•   Regional networking among community groups and traditional peoples' movements around pesticide and herbicide management [Global Chapter 2];
•   Building   co-responsibility   for   AKST   outcomes   and stronger, more effective mechanisms for enforcing these;
•   Developing "best practice" procedures and processes for including traditional and local people in AKST re­search prioritization, technology assessments and eval­uation [Global Chapter 3];
•   Evolution of Intellectual Property concepts, rules, and mechanisms  congruent with  development  objectives and the rights of local and traditional peoples. [ESAP SDM; Global Chapter 3, 7; NAE SDM];
•   Institutional innovations at policy level in support of implementation of the CBD, UNECCO-Link;
•   Access and Benefit-sharing Agreements [Global Chap­ter 3] and other systems for protecting Farmers' Rights [Global Chapter 7] and stronger coordination among such initiatives.