Annex C

Agriculture A linked, dynamic social-ecological system based on the extraction of biological products and services from an ecosystem, innovated and managed by people. It thus includes cropping, animal husbandry, fishing, forestry, biofuel and bioproducts industries, and the production of pharmaceuticals or tissue for transplant in crops and livestock through genetic engineering. It encompasses all stages of production, processing, distribution, marketing, retail, consumption and waste disposal.
Agricultural biodiversity Encompasses the variety and variability of animals, plants and microorganisms necessary to sustain key functions of the agroecosystem, its structure and processes for, and in support of, food production and food security.
Agricultural extension Agricultural extension deals with the creation, transmission and application of knowledge and skills designed to bring desirable behavioral changes among people so that they improve their agricultural vocations and enterprises and, therefore, realize higher incomes and better standards of living.
Agricultural innovation Agricultural innovation is a socially constructed process. Innovation is the result of the interaction of a multitude of actors, agents and stakeholders within particular institutional contexts. If agricultural research and extension are important to agricultural innovation, so are markets, systems of government, relations along entire value chains, social norms, and, in general, a host of factors that create the incentives for a farmer to decide to change the way in which he or she works, and that reward or frustrate his or her decision.
Agricultural population The agricultural population is defined as all persons depending for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry. This estimate comprises all persons actively engaged in agriculture and their non-working dependants.
Agricultural subsidies Agricultural subsidies can take many forms, but a common feature is an economic transfer, often in direct cash form, from government to farmers. These transfers may aim to reduce the costs of production in the form of an input subsidy, e.g., for inorganic fertilizers or pesticides, or to make up the difference between the actual market price for farm output and a higher guaranteed price. Subsidies shield sectors or products from international competition.
Agricultural waste Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers, erosion and dust

from plowing, improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses, crop residues and debris.
Agroecological Zone A geographically delimited area with similar climatic and ecological characteristics suitable for specific agricultural uses.
Agroecology The science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable agroecosystems. It includes the study of the ecological processes in farming systems and processes such as: nutrient cycling, carbon cycling/sequestration, water cycling, food chains within and between trophic groups (microbes to top predators), life cycles, herbivore/predator/ prey/host interactions, pollination, etc. Agroecological functions are generally maximized when there is high species diversity/perennial forest-like habitats. Agroecosystem A biological and biophysical natural resource system managed by humans for the primary purpose of producing food as well as other socially valuable nonfood goods and environmental services. Agroecosystem function can be enhanced by increasing the planned biodiversity (mixed species and mosaics), which creates niches for unplanned biodiversity.
Agroforestry A dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that through the integration of trees in farms and in the landscape diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels. Agroforestry focuses on the wide range of work with trees grown on farms and in rural landscapes. Among these are fertilizer trees for land regeneration, soil health and food security; fruit trees for nutrition; fodder trees that improve smallholder livestock production; timber and fuelwood trees for shelter and energy; medicinal trees to combat disease; and trees that produce gums, resins or latex products. Many of these trees are multipurpose, providing a range of social, economic and environmental benefits.
AKST Agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) is a term encompassing the ways and means used to practice the different types of agricultural activities, and including both formal and informal knowledge and technology.
Alien Species A species occurring in an area outside of its historically known natural range as a result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities. Also referred to as introduced species or exotic species.
Aquaculture The farming of aquatic organisms in inland and