562 | Annex C

earned in kind (e.g., growing food for consumption by the same household).
Cultivar A cultivated variety, a population of plants within a species of plant. Each cultivar or variety is genetically different.
Deforestation The action or process of changing forest land to non-forested land uses.
Degradation The result of processes that alter the ecological characteristics of terrestrial or aquatic (agro)ecosystems so that the net services that they provide are reduced. Continued degradation leads to zero or negative eco­nomic agricultural productivity. For loss of land in quantitative or qualitative ways, the term degradation is used. For water resources ren­dered unavailable for agricultural and nonagricultural uses, we employ the terms depletion and pollution. Soil degradation refers to the processes that reduce the capac­ity of the soil to support agriculture.
Desertification Land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.
Domesticated or Cultivated Species Species in which the evolutionary process has been influenced by humans to meet their needs.
Domestication The process to accustom animals to live with people as well as to selectively cultivate plants or raise animals in order to increase their suitability and compat­ibility to human requirements.
Driver Any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in a system.
Driver, direct A driver that unequivocally influences ecosys­tem processes and can therefore be identified and mea­sured to different degrees of accuracy.
Driver, endogenous A driver whose magnitude can be in­fluenced   by  the   decision-maker.   The   endogenous   or exogenous characteristic of a driver depends on the orga­nizational scale. Some drivers (e.g., prices) are exogenous to a decision-maker at one level (a farmer) but endog­enous at other levels (the nation-state).
Driver, exogenous A driver that cannot be altered by the decision-maker.
Driver, indirect A driver that operates by altering the level or rate of change of one or more direct drivers.
Ecoagriculture A management approach that provides fair balance between production of food, feed, fuel, fiber, and biodiversity conservation or protection of the eco­system.
Ecological Pest Management (EPM) A strategy to man­age pests that focuses on strengthening the health and resilience of the entire agro-ecosystem. EPM relies on scientific advances in the ecological and entomological fields of population dynamics, community and landscape ecology, multi-trophic interactions, and plant and habitat diversity.
Economic Rate of Return The net benefits to all members of society as a percentage of cost, taking into account externalities and other market imperfections.
Ecosystem A dynamic complex of plant, animal, and micro­organism communities and their nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit.
Ecosystem Approach A strategy for the integrated manage-


ment of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization, which encompass the essential structure, processes, functions, and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that hu­mans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral com­ponent and managers of many ecosystems.
Ecosystem  Function An  intrinsic ecosystem characteristic related to the set of conditions and processes whereby an ecosystem maintains its integrity (such as primary productivity, food chain biogeochemical cycles). Ecosys­tem functions include such processes as decomposition, production, pollination, predation, parasitism, nutrient cycling, and fluxes of nutrients and energy.
Ecosystem Management An approach to maintaining or re­storing the composition, structure, function, and delivery of services of natural and modified ecosystems for the goal of achieving sustainability. It is based on an adap­tive, collaboratively developed vision of desired future conditions that integrates ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional perspectives, applied within a geographic framework, and defined primarily by natural ecological boundaries.
Ecosystem  Properties The size, biodiversity, stability, de­gree of organization, internal exchanges of material and energy among different pools, and other properties that characterize an ecosystem.
Ecosystem Services The benefits people obtain from ecosys­tems. These include provisioning services such as food and water; regulating services such as flood and disease control; cultural services such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; and supporting services such as nutrient cycling that maintain the conditions for life on Earth. The concept "ecosystem goods and services" is synonymous with ecosystem services.
Ecosystem Stability A description of the dynamic proper­ties of an ecosystem. An ecosystem is considered stable if it returns to its original state shortly after a perturba­tion (resilience), exhibits low temporal variability (con­stancy), or does not change dramatically in the face of a perturbation (resistance).
Eutrophication Excessive enrichment of waters with nutri­ents, and the associated adverse biological effects.
Ex-ante The analysis of the effects of a policy or a project based only on information available before the policy or project is undertaken.
Ex-post The analysis of the effects of a policy or project based on information available after the policy or project has been implemented and its performance is observed.
Ex-situ Conservation The conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats.
Externalities Effects of a person's or firm's activities on oth­ers which are not compensated. Externalities can either hurt or benefit others—they can be negative or positive. One negative externality arises when a company pollutes the local environment to produce its goods and does not compensate the negatively affected local residents. Posi­tive externalities can be produced through primary edu­cation—which benefits not only primary school students