Historical Analysis of the Effectiveness of AKST Systems in Promoting Innovation

Coordinating Lead Authors 2.1.4 Technology and innovation processes 72
Fabrice Dreyfus (France), Cristina Plencovich (Argentina), Michel   Changes in perspective: from technologies to
Petit (France)   innovations 73 Market-led innovation 74
Lead Authors  Technological risks and costs in a globalizing world 74
Hasan Akca (Turkey), Salwa Dogheim (Egypt), Marcia Ishii-Eiteman 2.2 Key actors, Institutional Arrangements and Drivers 75
(USA), Janice Jiggins (UK), Toby Kiers (USA), Rose Kingamkono 2.2.1 Farmers and community-based arrangements 75
(Tanzania) 2.2.2 Producers of AKST at national level 78
 2.2.3 Producers of AKST at regional and international levels 82
Contributing Authors 2.2.4 Public-private and private sectoral arrangements 86
Emily Adams (USA), Medha Chandra (India), Sachin Chaturvedi 2.2.5 NGOs and other civil society networks 86
(India), Chris Garforth (UK), Michael Halewood (Canada), Andy 2.3 AKST Evolutions over Time: Thematic Narratives 87
Hall (UK), Niels Louwaars (Netherlands), Jesus Moncada (Mexico), 2.3.1 Historical trends in germplasm management and their
Cameron Pittelkow (USA), Jeremy Schwartzbord (USA), Matthew   implications for the future 87
Spurlock (USA), Jeff Waage (UK)   Summary of major trends in the history of global
   germplasm management 87
Review Editors  Genetic resources as a common heritage 88
Stephen Biggs (UK) and Gina Castillo (Ecuador)  Major changes in germplasm management 90 Increasing consolidation of the private sector 94  Farmers, public and private sector: roles and relations 96 The need for a renewed design with distribution of
Key Messages   diverse roles 98
2.1 Science, Knowledge, Technology, and Innovation in 2.3.2 Pest management 98
  Agriculture 59   Chemical control 98
2.1.1 The specificity of agriculture as an activity 60 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 99
  2.1 .1.1  The characteristics of agriculture as a multidimensional  Institutional innovations and responses in pest
  activity 60   management 100 The controversy on multifunctionality 61  Overall assessment of trends and challenges in pest
2.1.2 Knowledge processes 62   management 106  Transfer of Technology as a model for organizing 2.3.3 Food systems management 107
  knowledge and diffusion processes 63  Local food systems activities 107
  2.1 .2.2 Other models of knowledge generation and diffusion  Global food systems activities 107
  processes 64  Food systems outcome trends 108 New challenges and opportunities 68 2.4 Lessons from the Past: Implications for the Future 116
2.1.3 Science processes 70 2.4.1 Multiple AKST actors and partnerships 118  Cultures of science 70 2.4.2 AKST and education 118 A changing contract between science and society 71 2.4.3 Public policy and regulatory frameworks 118