Annex C



Agriculture A linked, dynamic social-ecological system based on the extraction of biological products and services from an ecosystem, innovated and managed by people. It thus includes cropping, animal husbandry, fishing, forestry, biofuel and bioproducts industries, and the production of pharmaceuticals or tissue for transplant in crops and livestock through genetic engineering. It encompasses all stages of production, processing, distribution, marketing, retail, consumption and waste disposal.

Agricultural biodiversity Encompasses the variety and vari­ability of animals, plants and microorganisms necessary to sustain key functions of the agroecosystem, its struc­ture and processes for, and in support of, food produc­tion and food security.

Agricultural extension Agricultural extension deals with the creation,  transmission  and   application  of knowledge and skills designed to bring desirable behavioral changes among people so that they improve their agricultural vocations and enterprises and, therefore, realize higher incomes and better standards of living.

Agricultural innovation Agricultural innovation is a socially constructed process. Innovation is the result of the inter­action of a multitude of actors, agents and stakeholders within particular institutional contexts. If agricultural re­search and extension are important to agricultural inno­vation, so are markets, systems of government, relations along entire value chains, social norms, and, in general, a host of factors that create the incentives for a farmer to decide to change the way in which he or she works, and that reward or frustrate his or her decision.

Agricultural population The agricultural population is de­fined as all persons depending for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry. This estimate comprises all persons actively engaged in agriculture and their non-working dependants.

Agricultural subsidies Agricultural subsidies can take many forms, but a common feature is an economic transfer, often in direct cash form, from government to farmers. These transfers may aim to reduce the costs of produc­tion in the form of an input subsidy, e.g., for inorganic fertilizers or pesticides, or to make up the difference between the actual market price for farm output and a higher guaranteed price. Subsidies shield sectors or prod­ucts from international competition.

Agricultural  waste Farming wastes,  including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers, erosion and dust from plowing, improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses, crop residues and debris.


Agroecological Zone A geographically delimited area with similar climatic and ecological characteristics suitable for specific agricultural uses.

Agroecology The science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable agroecosystems. It includes the study of the ecological processes in farming systems and processes such as: nu­trient cycling, carbon cycling/sequestration, water cy­cling, food chains within and between trophic groups (microbes to top predators), lifecycles, herbivore/preda­tor/prey/host interactions, pollination etc. Agroecologi­cal functions are generally maximized when there is high species diversity/perennial forest-like habitats.

Agroecosystem A  biological   and   biophysical  natural  re­source system managed by humans for the primary pur­pose of producing food as well as other socially valuable nonfood goods and environmental services. Agroecosys­tem function can be enhanced by increasing the planned biodiversity (mixed species and mosaics), which creates niches for unplanned biodiversity.

Agrof orestry A dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that through the integration of trees in farms and in the landscape diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environ­mental benefits for land users at all levels. Agroforestry focuses on the wide range of work with trees grown on farms and in rural landscapes. Among these are fertilizer trees for land regeneration, soil health and food security; fruit trees for nutrition; fodder trees that improve small­holder livestock production; timber and fuelwood trees for shelter and energy; medicinal trees to combat disease; and trees that produce gums, resins or latex products. Many of these trees are multipurpose, providing a range of social, economic and environmental benefits.

AKST Agricultural    Knowledge,    Science    and    Technology (AKST) is a term encompassing the ways and means used to practice the different types of agricultural activities, and including both formal and informal knowledge and technology.

Alien Species A species occurring in an area outside of its historically known natural range as a result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities. Also referred to as introduced species or exotic species.

Aquaculture The farming of aquatic organisms in inland and coastal areas, involving intervention in the rearing pro­cess to enhance production and the individual or corpo­rate ownership of the stock being cultivated. Aquaculture practiced in a marine environment is called mariculture.