Glossary | 563

but also society at large. Governments can reduce nega­tive externalities by regulating and taxing goods with negative externalities. Governments can increase positive externalities by subsidizing goods with positive externali­ties or by directly providing those goods.
Fallow Cropland left idle from harvest to planting or during the growing season.
Farmer-led Participatory Plant Breeding Researchers and/ or development workers interact with farmer-controlled, managed and executed PPB activities, and build on farm­ers' own varietal development and seed systems.
Feminization The increase in the share of women in an activ­ity, sector or process.
Fishery Generally, a fishery is an activity leading to harvesting of fish. It may involve capture of wild fish or the raising of fish through aquaculture.
Food Security Food security exists when all people of a given spatial unit, at all times, have physical and economic ac­cess to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, and that is obtained in a socially acceptable and ecologically sustainable manner.
Food Sovereignty The right of peoples and sovereign states to democratically determine their own agricultural and food policies.
Food System A food system encompasses the whole range of food production and consumption activities. The food system includes farm input supply, farm production, food processing, wholesale and retail distribution, marketing, and consumption.
Forestry The human utilization of a piece of forest for a cer­tain purpose, such as timber or recreation.
Forest Systems Forest systems are lands dominated by trees; they are often used for timber, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products.
Gender Refers to the socially constructed roles and behaviors of, and relations between, men and women, as opposed to sex, which refers to biological differences. Societies assign specific entitlements, responsibilities and values to men and women of different social strata and sub­groups. Worldwide,  systems  of relation  between men  and women tend to disadvantage women, within the family as well as in public life. Like the hierarchical framework of a society, gender roles and relations vary according to context and are constantly subject to changes.
Genetic Engineering Modifying genotype, and hence pheno-type, by transgenesis.
Genetic Material Any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity.
Genomics The research strategy that uses molecular charac­terization and cloning of whole genomes to understand the structure, function and evolution of genes and to an­swer fundamental biological questions.
Globalization Increasing interlinking of political, economic, institutional, social, cultural, technical, and ecological is­sues at the global level.
GMO  (Genetically Modified Organism) An organism in which the genetic material has been altered anthropo-genically by means of gene or cell technologies.
Governance The framework of social and economic systems


and legal and political structures through which human­ity manages itself.  In general, governance comprises the traditions, institutions and processes that determine how power is exercised, how citizens are given a voice, and how decisions are made on issues of public concern.
Global Environmental Governance The global biosphere behaves as a single system, where the environmental im­pacts of each nation ultimately affect the whole. That makes a coordinated response from the community of nations a necessity for reversing today's environmental decline.
Global Warming Refers to an increase in the globally-aver­aged surface temperature in response to the increase of well-mixed greenhouse gases, particularly CO2.
Global Warming Potential An index, describing the radiative characteristics of well-mixed greenhouse gases, that rep­resents the combined effect of the differing times these gases remain in the atmosphere and their relative effec­tiveness in absorbing outgoing infrared radiation. This index approximates the time-integrated warming effect of a unit mass of a given greenhouse gas in today's atmo­sphere, relative to that of carbon dioxide.
Green Revolution An aggressive effort since 1950 in which agricultural researchers applied scientific principles of genetics and breeding to improve crops grown primar­ily in less-developed countries. The effort typically was accompanied  by collateral investments to  develop  or strengthen the delivery of extension services, production inputs and markets and develop physical infrastructures such as roads and irrigation.
Green Water Green water refers to the water that comes from precipitation and is stored in unsaturated soil. Green wa­ter is typically taken up by plants as evapotranspiration.
Ground Water Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that make up the Earth's crust. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table.
Growth Rate The change (increase, decrease, or no change) in an indicator over a period of time, expressed as a percent­age of the indicator at the start of the period. Growth rates contain several sets of information. The first is whether there is any change at all; the second is what direction the change is going in (increasing or decreasing); and the third is how rapidly that change is occurring.
Habitat Area occupied by and supporting living organisms. It is also used to mean the environmental attributes re­quired by a particular species or its ecological niche.
Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon and/or human activity, which my cause injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmen­tal degradation. Hazards can include latent conditions that may repre­sent future threats and can have different origins.
Household All the persons, kin and non-kin, who live in the same or in a series of related dwellings and who share in­come, expenses and daily subsistence tasks. A basic unit for socio-cultural and economic analysis, a household may consist of persons (sometimes one but generally two or more) living together and jointly making provision for food or other essential elements of the livelihood.
Industrial Agriculture Form of agriculture that is capital-